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Sunday, January 23, 2011

The Big Bang “Infinitely Regressive?” – A Quantum Mechanical Answer

Following from the last Post . This gives me an opportunity to describe at this point how Quantum Mechanics effectively gives an explanation for this Infinite range of choices that the singularity has, to have arisen out of nothing. Quantum mechanics is that fundamental science that incorporates within its solution every possible choice of outcomes (therefore an infinite number of choices) within a single experiment. Therefore it is the most mathematically apt and technically sound subject to define such a problem as we have mentioned in the last post. Since it is a clearly established subject with over 80 years of confirmed experiments as I understand. We shall use its equations directly.
Consider the simple equation in relation to the very famous Science dude of all time Heisenberg and his famous Uncertainty Principle. Its follows mathematically
The Inflationary Model Showing Quantum Fluctuations 

dE.dt >= h/(2pi)

E = Energy
h = Planck’s Constant ,6.623 x10-34

Infinitesimal (extremely small) amounts of Energy dE can arise into existence for extremely short period of time dt,  it is a quantum phenomenon called “Quantum fluctuation” of the vacuum. It allows the creation of particle-antiparticle pairs of virtual particles from vacuum. We now know that vacumm is not "empty" but it is actually a mass of activity with particle-antiparticle pairs being repeatedly produced out of the vacuum and immediately annihilating themselves into nothingness again. The creation of a particle-antiparticle pair out of the vacuum  violates the principle of Conservation of Energy but The Heisenberg uncertainty principle allows this to occur for a very limited period of time dt. This phenomenon has observable and measurable consequences, which have been tested and confirmed. Laboratory experiments have proven that quantum fluctuations occur everywhere, all the time . It is also responsible for the highly debated BLACK HOLE RADIATION.
Next within the framework of the BIG BANG, a period  of inflation occurs , INFLATION is the theorized extremely rapid exponential expansion of the early universe by a factor of at least 1078 in volume, driven by a negative-pressure vacuum energy density (repulsive side of gravity arising from General Relativity). It lasted from 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds. Following the inflationary period, the universe continues to expand. Now Consider the following steps in the above equation .
1. The Value of h/(2pi) = 1.0546 x 10-34
2. For infinitesimal value of  dt= 1 x10-34
3.The Resulting Value of  dE = 1.054
Now we know that Gravitational energy is a negative quantity. You can see this by realizing that in order to separate two objects, one has to overcome the attractive gravitational force and this requires one to supply positive energy from outside and its counterpart the Positive energy is represented by the matter we see around us .
“One can show that this negative gravitational energy exactly cancels the positive energy represented by the matter. So the total energy of the universe is zero.”
I quote STEPHEN HAWKING from his book  “A Brief History of Time”
For above Refinements in the calculation would give the exact value of dE=0 ( approximately equal to zero) .Which thus results in a simple conclusion that the Entire Universe is nothing but a quantum fluctuation whose energy is zero and an expansion has taken place by a factor of at least 1078 in volume during the Inflationary phase. Hence the combined total being zero .This completely satisfies that the entire universe is nothing but a random quantum fluctuation whose probability of expansion was higher than usual resulting in the OBSERVABLE UNIVERSE arising out of quantum mechanics. These principles of QM could be applied only because of the infinitesimal (extremely small) order of size of the singular entity that banged. Also within the equation if we were to place in the values of energy approximately equal to zero . To retain the value of h/(2pi) (a Constant ) an input of time equal to approximately the current age of the universe could be deduced.
Conclusively no energy was required to "create" the universe. The zero total energy of the universe is an observational fact, within measured uncertainties. What is more, this is also a prediction of inflationary phase of the Big Bang Theory, which we have seen has now been strongly supported by observations. Thus we can safely say,
No violation of energy conservation occurred if the universe arose out of an initial vacuum of zero energy and the universe came from "nothing" and will probably lead into "nothing" .

Kindly Leave comments as to how clear the presented concept is .
Thanks in anticipation.

The Big Bang “Infinitely Regressive?” – General Relativistic Approach

An Overview : Omitting out the details at TIME ZERO
You and I are one with the universe. No, this isn’t a dialogue ripped off a movie (nonetheless it could be one). It’s is in the sense that our basic building blocks were all created at the same instant of time arriving from the singular entity we call the “Singularity”. And This thing supposedly Banged ! Big Time !  Scales of which are unfathomable in human vision or senses though that shouldn’t stop you from giving it a view in your mind’s eye.
The Familiar Big Bang Theory ! At first look you’d say yeah this is reasoning enough for the beginning. But we shall probe further.

Far from answering the truth about the origin of the universe, this theory actually leaves us asking more questions than it originally answers and betrays the fundamental principles of science built on the pillars of Causality which is the relationship between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the second event is understood as a consequence of the first. The arrow of time starts off form this point in Cosmic Evolution but it says nothing about the time ZERO essentially. It gives no info however on what brought the bang into existence, what exactly banged ?, how it banged ?, why It banged ?, where it banged ?. In essence the big bang leaves out the Bang in Itself and the “space” within which it banged because before the bang there was no space. Also arises the question of Energy Conservation (total amount of mass and energy at point in time is same and is conserved  at any other point in time), if there was nothing before the big bang where did all the mass(leaving aside dark matter and energy for the time being ) we see come from? We shall try to find answers nevertheless.
Also if given a though as to why should the big bang , bang at all? If gravity is an attractive force why should it project things outward in violation to its nature?  You’re left with a question physicists are trying to answer logically with a heavy set of equations, within the framework of STRING theory currently constructing great strides in. Even then at one point or another such an explanation of an origin goes beyond logic of the human mind. It leads to an “INFINITE REGRESSION”. We’ll first see to that and how.

Let’s assume that the universe did actually come into existence through the Big Bang or from any of the other theory for that matter like the Inflationary Universe theories , Cyclic universe theory, Brane Collision theory etc,.  Large Proportions of progress has been made in these fields with sufficient theoretical addition and contributions to the original Big Bang. But then again a very fundamental problem still remains.
The Problem is an unassuming one, that if the Big Bang brought the universe into existence what brought the big bang into existence? It’s a million dollar question. (and I don’t have a donate gadget installed) . So we’ll also assume that an Indefinite unidentified force beyond human perception brought the Big Bang into existence during the pre-Big Bang for the sake of an explanation, through cause and effect relationship . The statements being that every cause has an effect  and does not happen spontaneously.  Then there arises the problem as to what brought that Indefinite unidentified force into existence. Now this leads to a question again as to what brought that last force into existence and so on and so forth . This query leading to a series of questions that don’t seem to give the answer but toughen the case further .  Till we are left with an infinite series of questions, each questioning the last one leading us to an Infinite regression. Thus leading us conclude to a point that . OK fine enough !  let’s just say that at one point SOMETHING created ITSELF which created the universe. As for us infinities don’t make sense (may be because we lack the senses to). So then lets assume big bang itself made itself out of thin air (Pardon the expression), replacing this Indefinite unidentified force’s need . But you’d say something creating itself doesn’t make sense either because we don’t see it happening within our space and time, violating CAUSALITY and ENERGY CONSERVATION.
But then again plainly at time ZERO, the big bang lies outside the framework and domain of homogeneous SPACE and TIME because it hasn’t been created by the Big Bang yet. This could exclude Big Bang from all the CONSERVATION LAWS in itself.
In a more elaborate and definite way ,in Noether's theorem Conservation laws are defined by the homogeneity of time. And homogeneity of time is violated during the singularity.  Here comes, General Relativity which Is a theory that defines Gravity in the Geometrical framework Of SPACE-TIME (4 dimension , 3 space and 1 time) . In which the curvature of SPACE-TIME is directly related to the four-momentum (mass-energy and linear momentum) of whatever matter and radiation are present .  It has been clearly established through over 40 years of confirmed experiments.  It simply states that the larger the Energy Density in a volume the larger the curvature of SPACE-TIME within and surrounding that volume. Fact known that the singularity had unbounded Energy density. Therefore Time and space at the singularity were profoundly warped and distorted in extremities . Hence the definition in Noether’s theorem is clearly violated and thereby, Giving the singularity freedom of choice to be created and further create whatever it wants from  a range of possibilities with various probabilities arising from nothing. The explanation for how this happens is as given in the Next post.

Tuesday, January 11, 2011

An “Atomic life force?”

Now before we go on and explore concepts of what surrounds us, why and how it works...
I’d like the explore the question of why we’re able to discover these concepts in the first place ?
Humans as self-conscious beings have the uncanny ability to poke into the under-working of nature and determine to a fantastic accuracy laws which it abides and follows in Classical Mechanics (Laws of motion, Newtonian Gravity, Work, Energy etc.).
However what is it that gives human(s) this uncanny ability to predict and construct these laws?
To answer this I’d like to put forth the concept of an “Atomic life force”. Now this is not a rip off from works of science fiction but its radical nevertheless. Read through and make judgments on it for yourself.
Evolution most would say has resulted in our derivation from apes into complex beings capable of abstract and refined reasoning. So this itself may be reasoning enough to justify the superior nose poking skills humans have. But I’d like to probe further.

Now for all those who’ve undergone a formal course in chemistry, atomic bonding is a familiar concept. For all those who haven’t it’s not much of a deal anyway. Atoms have a certain amounts of +ve charge(protons) and –ve charge(electrons) in terms of electromagnetic forces. If an atom has an excessive or a lesser amount of amount of electrons (-ve charge cloud) it becomes unstable. A certain amount of negative charge is just right for it to settle down, as it can then be equivalent to the positively charged protons at the center of the atoms. Then they both cancel out each other’s destabilizing effects arising due to electromagnetic forces. The methods by which they do this are simple too. Some atoms share if having an incomplete amount of electrons bond and settle down(covalent bond). Some trade off or transfer electrons to achieve stability as a molecule(ionic bond) . Some steal or plunder the electrons through force of attraction ( hydrogen bond, london forces ).
This I find is analogous to all regular cellular instincts and elementary human behavior . If resources are incomplete or in lacking, make a colony and share . If resources are in excess then tradeoff this for something that is lacking. In case of predatory or parasitic organisms, plunder resources wherever found. Thereby achieving stability and settling down seeming to be the ulterior motive in each case. Opposites attract is true in the case of properties of Atoms and Humans too. 

What I’m coming to say is, as we understand the nature of what comprises us better, we realize that our basic actions and instincts are similar to the properties of the fundamental entities that make us up.  Atoms make up molecules, which make up compounds ->Genes->Nucleus->Cells->Tissues->Collection of tissues->Organs->humans. Irrespective of any organism some basic features of atomic behavior exhibits itself at macro levels. This if extended to inanimate matter also seems true as
anything composed of matter exhibits the characteristics of the fundamental entities in larger scales. Gene :: Organisms as Atoms :: Matter !
Any atom you take somehow seems to know what it needs to do to become stable and settle down (in organisms this is similar to the gene function). In a nutshell Atoms themselves are basic entities of life and seem to have An “ATOMIC LIFE FORCE” embedded within it that expresses itself beginning from the most simplest of life forms.
So why the special selection of only carbon based life forms? That is question that can be answered through evolution and the environmental conditions. Atoms of different elements were given preference in nature depending on their electronic makeup and properties, to bond further extensively, to make up life. Another thing you may state in contradiction is why inanimate objects, they also being composed of atoms but non-living? We’ll take three specific examples of what you may state:
1.Plastic  2.Metal  3.Earth and its minerals .

  • 1.Plastic: Of human making, composed of petroleum products. Petroleum is composed of what once was living sea and tree matter. Supports human life in numerous ways now. (therefore once living )
  • 2.Metals: Have precise features and properties to which they abide. They are required by living organisms for cellular function at various levels. The Iron needed for hemoglobin, Zinc needed for enzymes,(thereby supporting life)etc.  I’d further go ahead and say that, assumed some extremely exotic conditions even metals may have the ability to make up life (maybe not as complex but it’s anyone’s guess).  
  • 3.Earth : Gas molecules, Sand, Water, Minerals and Compounds etc. that make up this planet support life on it,  by providing these living entities exactly what they require to survive and sustain . 

Somehow these atoms know what they need to do, to provide organisms with extra biological inputs to sustain.Duh! Certainly not, they don’t have a conscience, you may say. But Its obvious to me at this point that INTELLIGENT LIFE can be considered as one of the latter stages in the development / evolution of the entire Cosmos itself and that atoms have an embedded “Atomic Life force” that seems to drive this development. That certainly answers the fact that the actual nature of our reasoning lies at the heart of the attributes of fundamental entities. Considering this, it may not be surprising at all to find Extraterrestrial life (or find them on . As they begin questioning the Nature of the Cosmos and its fundamentals, we probably being one of them.
Kindly Leave comments as to how clear the presented concept is .
Thanks in anticipation.

Sunday, January 9, 2011

The Inaugural Blog : Inspiration.

The Universe : An Inspiration In Itself
***“All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident.” ***                     
                     - Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 - 1860)   
In the course of evolution of humans, a quest to understand the precise basic entities of Nature has driven US beings to such distant Insights that if theoretical physics in this context were to be compared with a Dish , then we’ve added ingredients, spices and condiments that go beyond those found on EARTH .

With Theoretical and Experimental Physics in the present-day being at the fore front of revealing all of nature’s most covertly kept secrets , one needs to be mindful of what comprises this creation and all its entities, clear one’s mind of all mysteries. This very basic need arises from the quest to know yourself and your surroundings.  

You, me, all substances of this creation are interconnected in a certain harmony that allows us to be able to ask questions regarding this creation itself. A definite harmony that has arises from exceedingly chaotic instant of creation. Gone are the days of immediate experimental verification of any theory that lay within the grasp of a layman’s understanding and judgment.

My personal quest in this regard would be to present a stronger (to the best of my own understanding and those derived from others), simpler approach to be able to feel these concepts in our bones, as much as we feel the blood in our veins. Without getting lost in the details which invariably happens to all of us at one point or another.

Subsequently this Blog is also an attempt to reason my responses to undetermined, unpredictable and sometimes unfathomable conceptions within the broad domain of Theoretical & Experimental Physics. Furthermore to discuss many other possibilities looking at all possible sides of the coin.
As we gradually make our way out into ideas shrouded in complexities, demystify it and open up Nature’s Pandora Box. Stay Tuned.